SUBCHAPTER 10I ‑ ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES

 

SECTION .0100 - ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES

 

15A NCAC 10I .0101         DEFINITIONS AND PROCEDURES

 

History Note:        Authority G.S. 113‑132; 113‑134; 113‑331; 113‑333; 113‑334; 113‑336; 143‑239;

Eff. June 11, 1977;

Amended Eff. August 1, 1988;

RRC Objection due to lack of statutory authority Eff. August 18, 1994;

Amended Eff. October 1, 1994;

Repealed Eff. April 1, 1997.

15A NCAC 10I .0102         PROTECTION OF ENDANGERED/THREATENED/SPECIAL CONCERN

(a)  No Open Season.  There is no open season for taking any of the species listed as endangered in Rule .0103, or threatened in Rule .0104 of this Section, except for the American alligator (Alligator mississipiensis) as set forth in the rules of this Chapter.  Unless otherwise provided in North Carolina General Statutes or the rules of this Chapter, there is no open season for taking any of the species listed as special concern in Rule .0105 of this Section. Except as provided in Paragraphs (b), (c) and (e) of this Rule, it is unlawful to take or possess any animal listed in Rules .0103, .0104, or .0105 of this Section at any time.

(b)  Permits.  The executive director may issue permits to take or possess an endangered, threatened, or special concern species:

(1)           to an individual or institution with experience and training in handling, and caring for the wildlife and in conducting a scientific study, for the purpose of scientific investigation relevant to perpetuation or restoration of said species or as a part of a scientifically valid study or restoration effort;

(2)           to a public or private educator or exhibitor who demonstrates that he or she has lawfully obtained the specimen or specimens in his or her possession, possesses the requisite equipment and expertise to care for such specimen or specimens, and abides by the caging requirements for the species set forth in 15A NCAC 10H .0302;

(3)           to a person who lawfully possessed any such species for more than 90 days immediately prior to the date that such species was listed and who abides by the caging requirements for the species set forth in 15A NCAC 10H .0302, provided however, that no permit shall be issued more than 90 days after the effective date of the initial listing for that species; or

(4)           to a person with demonstrable depredation from a Special Concern Species, or the American alligator (Alligator mississipiensis).

(c)  Taking Without a Permit:

(1)           An individual may take an endangered, threatened, or special concern species in defense of his own life or the lives of others.

(2)           A state or federal conservation officer or employee who is designated by his agency to do so may, when acting in the course of his official duties, take, possess, and transport endangered, threatened, or special concern species if the action is necessary to:

(A)          aid a sick, injured, diseased, or orphaned specimen;

(B)          dispose of a dead specimen;

(C)          salvage a dead specimen that may be useful for scientific study; or

(D)          remove specimens that constitute a demonstrable but nonimmediate threat to human safety, provided the taking is done in a humane and noninjurious manner.  The taking may involve injuring or killing endangered, threatened, or special concern species only if it is not possible to eliminate the threat by live-capturing and releasing the specimen unharmed, in a habitat that is suitable for the survival of that species.

(d)  Reporting.  Any taking or possession of an endangered, threatened, or special concern species under Paragraphs (b) and (c) of this Rule is subject to applicable reporting requirements of federal law and regulations, and the reporting requirements of the permit issued by the Executive Director or of 15A NCAC 10B .0106(e).

(e)  Exceptions.

(1)           Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Rule, processed meat and other parts of American alligators that have been lawfully taken in a state in which there is an open season for harvesting alligators may be possessed, bought, and sold when such products are marketed in packages or containers that are labeled to indicate the state in which they were taken and the identity, address, and lawful authority of the processor or distributor.

(2)           Raptors listed as special concern species in Rule .0105 of this Section may be taken from the wild for falconry purposes and for falconry propagation, provided that a valid North Carolina endangered species permit has been obtained as required in Paragraph (b) of this Rule.

(3)           Captive-bred raptors listed as special concern species may be bought, sold, bartered, or traded as provided in 50 C.F.R. 21.30 when marked as required under those regulations. 50 C.F.R. 21.30 is hereby incorporated by reference, shall include any later amendments and editions of the incorporated material, and may be accessed free of cost at http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=1bc046c08a9f0f17cb904604d98ab748&node=se50.9.21_130&rgn=div8.

(4)           Red Wolves (Canis rufus) listed as threatened in Rule .0104 in this Section may be taken or harassed pursuant to the conditions provided in 50 C.F.R. 17.84(c). 50 C.F.R. 17.84(c) is hereby incorporated by reference, shall include any later amendments and editions of the incorporated material, and may be accessed free of cost at http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?rgn=div8&node=50:2.0.1.1.1.8.1.5.

(5)           Importation, possession, sales, transportation, and exportation of species listed as special concern species in Rule .0105 of this Section shall be allowed under permit by retail and wholesale establishments whose primary function is providing scientific supplies for research, provided that:

(A)          the specimens were lawfully obtained from captive or wild populations outside of North Carolina;

(B)          they are possessed in indoor facilities;

(C)          all transportation of specimens provides safeguards adequate to prevent accidental escape; and

(D)          importation, possession, and sale or transfer is permitted only as listed in Parts (e)(4)(A) and (B) of this Rule.

(f)  A written application to the Commission shall be required for a permit to authorize importation, and possession for the purpose of retail or wholesale sale.  The application shall identify the source of the specimens and provide documentation of lawful acquisition. Applications for permits shall include plans for holding, transportation, advertisement, and sale in such detail as to allow a determination of the safeguards provided against accidental escape and sales to unauthorized individuals.

(g)  Purchase, importation, and possession of special concern species within North Carolina is allowed under permit to state and federal governmental agencies, corporate research entities, and research institutions, provided that:

(1)           sales are permitted to out of state consumers;

(2)           the specimens will be possessed in indoor facilities and safeguards adequate to prevent accidental escape are provided during all transportation of the specimens;

(3)           the agency's or institution's Animal Use and Care Committee has approved the research protocol for this species; and

(4)           no specimens may be stocked or released in the public or private waters or lands of North Carolina and specimens may not be transferred to any private individual.

 

History Note:        Authority G.S. 113-134; 113-291.2; 113-291.3; 113-292; 113-333;

Eff. June 11, 1977;

Amended Eff.  January 1, 2013; January 1, 2012; May 1, 2009; April 1, 2003; April 1, 2001; April 1, 1997; February 1, 1994; September 1, 1989; March 1, 1981; March 17, 1978.

Temporary Amendment Eff. February 27, 2015;

Amended Eff. July 1, 2016.

 

15A NCAC 10I .0103         ENDANGERED SPECIES LISTED

(a)  The following species of resident wildlife shall be designated as federally‑listed endangered species:

(1)           Amphibians: None Listed At This Time.

(2)           Birds:

(A)          Bachman's warbler (Vermivora bachmanii);

(B)          Ivory‑billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis);

(C)          Kirtland's warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii);

(D)          Piping plover (Charadrius melodus circumcinctus);

(E)           Red‑cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis); and

(F)           Roseate tern (Sterna dougallii dougallii).

(3)           Crustacea: None Listed At This Time.

(4)           Fish:

(A)          Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas);

(B)          Roanoke logperch (Percina rex);

(C)          Shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), when found in inland fishing waters as defined in G.S. 113-291(9)a. and (9)b.; and

(D)          Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus), when found in inland fishing waters.

(5)           Mammals:

(A)          Carolina northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus);

(B)          Eastern cougar (Puma concolor);

(C)          Gray bat (Myotis grisescens);

(D)          Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis);

(E)           Manatee (Trichechus manatus), when found in inland fishing waters; and

(F)           Virginia big‑eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus).

(6)           Mollusks:

(A)          Appalachian elktoe (Alasmidonta raveneliana);

(B)          Carolina heelsplitter (Lasmigona decorata);

(C)          Dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon);

(D)          James spinymussel (Pleurobema collina);

(E)           Littlewing pearlymussel (Pegias fabula);

(F)           Tan riffleshell (Epioblasma florentina walkeri); and

(G)          Tar River spinymussel (Elliptio steinstansana).

(7)           Reptiles:

(A)          Kemp's ridley seaturtle (Lepidochelys kempii);

(B)          Atlantic hawksbill seaturtle (Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata); and

(C)          Leatherback seaturtle (Dermochelys coriacea).

(b)  The following species of resident wildlife shall be designated as state‑listed endangered species:

(1)           Amphibians:

(A)          Gopher frog (Rana [=Lithobates] capito);

(B)          Ornate chorus frog (Pseudacris ornata); and

(C)          River frog (Rana [=Lithobates] heckscheri).

(2)           Birds:

(A)          American peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus anatum);

(B)          Bewick's wren (Thryomanes bewickii);

(C)          Common tern (Sterna hirundo);

(D)          Henslow's sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii); and

(E)           Wayne's black-throated green warbler (Setophaga virens waynei).

(3)           Crustacea:  Bennett's Mill cave water slater (Caecidotea carolinensis).

(4)           Fish:

(A)          Blotchside logperch (Percina burtoni);

(B)          Bridle shiner (Notropis bifrenatus);

(C)          Dusky darter (Percina sciera);

(D)          Orangefin madtom (Noturus gilberti);

(E)           Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula);

(F)           Robust redhorse (Moxostoma robustum);

(G)          Rustyside sucker (Thoburnia hamiltoni);

(H)          Sharpnose darter (Percina oxyrhyncus); and

(I)            Stonecat (Noturus flavus).

(5)           Mammals: None Listed At This Time.

(6)           Mollusks:

(A)          Atlantic pigtoe (Fusconaia masoni);

(B)          Barrel floater (Anodonta couperiana);

(C)          Brook floater (Alasmidonta varicosa);

(D)          Carolina creekshell (Villosa vaughaniana);

(E)           Fragile glyph (Glyphyalinia clingmani);

(F)           Green floater (Lasmigona subviridis);

(G)          Greenfield rams-horn (Helisoma eucosmium)

(H)          Knotty elimia (Elimia christyi);

(I)            Longsolid (Fusconaia subrotunda);

(J)            Magnificent rams‑horn (Planorbella magnifica);

(K)          Purple wartyback (Cyclonaias tuberculata);

(L)           Savannah lilliput (Toxolasma pullus);

(M)         Slippershell mussel (Alasmidonta viridis);

(N)          Tennessee clubshell (Pleurobema oviforme);

(O)          Tennessee heelsplitter (Lasmigona holstonia);

(P)           Tennessee pigtoe (Fusconaia barnesiana);

(Q)          Yellow lampmussel (Lampsilis cariosa); and

(R)          Yellow lance (Elliptio lanceolata).

(7)           Reptiles:

(A)          Eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius fulvius); and

(B)          Eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus).

 

History Note:        Authority G.S. 113‑134; 113‑291.2; 113‑292; 113‑333;

Eff. June 11, 1977;

Amended Eff. October 1, 2017; August 1, 2016; May 1, 2008; April 1, 2001; February 1, 1994; November 1, 1991; April 1, 1991; June 1, 1990

 

15A NCAC 10I .0104         THREATENED SPECIES LISTED

(a)  The following species of resident wildlife shall be designated as federally‑listed threatened species:

(1)           Amphibians: None Listed At This Time.

(2)           Birds:

(A)          Piping plover (Charadrius melodus melodus);

(B)          Red knot (Calidris canutus rufa); and

(C)          Wood stork (Mycteria americana).

(3)           Crustacea: None Listed At This Time.

(4)           Fish:

(A)          Spotfin chub (Erimonax monachus); and

(B)          Waccamaw silverside (Menidia extensa).

(5)           Mammals: Northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis)

(6)           Mollusks: Noonday globe (Patera clarki nantahala).

(7)           Reptiles:

(A)          Bog turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii);

(B)          American alligator (Alligator mississipiensis);

(C)          Green seaturtle (Chelonia mydas); and

(D)          Loggerhead seaturtle (Caretta caretta).

(b)  The following species of resident wildlife are designated as state‑listed threatened species:

(1)           Amphibians:

(A)          Eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum);

(B)          Green salamander (Aneides aeneus);

(C)          Junaluska salamander (Eurycea junaluska);

(D)          Mabee's salamander (Ambystoma mabeei); and

(E)           Wehrle's salamander (Plethodon wehrlei).

(2)           Birds:

(A)          Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus);

(B)          Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia);

(C)          Gull‑billed tern (Gelochelidon nilotica aranea); and

(D)          Northern saw-whet owl (Aegolius acadicus).

(3)           Crustacea: None Listed At This Time.

(4)           Fish:

(A)          Bigeye jumprock (Moxostoma ariommum);

(B)          Carolina madtom (Noturus furiosus);

(C)          Carolina pygmy sunfish (Elassoma boehlkei);

(D)          Carolina redhorse (Moxostoma sp.)(Pee Dee River and its tributaries and Cape Fear River and its tributaries);

(E)           Least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera);

(F)           Logperch (Percina caprodes);

(G)          Mimic shiner (Notropis volucellus);

(H)          Rosyface chub (Hybopsis rubrifrons);

(I)            Sharphead darter (Etheostoma acuticeps);

(J)            Sicklefin redhorse (Moxostoma sp.)(Hiwassee River and its tributaries and Little Tennessee River and its tributaries);

(K)          Turquoise darter (Etheostoma inscriptum); and

(L)           Waccamaw darter (Etheostoma perlongum).

(5)           Mammals:

(A)          Eastern woodrat (Neotoma floridana floridana);

(B)          Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii rafinesquii); and

(C)          Red wolf (Canis rufus).

(6)           Mollusks:

(A)          Alewife floater (Anodonta implicata);

(B)          Big‑tooth covert (Fumonelix jonesiana);

(C)          Cape Fear threetooth (Triodopsis soelneri);

(D)          Carolina fatmucket (Lampsilis radiata conspicua);

(E)           Eastern lampmussel (Lampsilis radiata radiata);

(F)           Eastern pondmussel (Ligumia nasuta);

(G)          Engraved covert (Fumonelix orestes);

(H)          Mountain creekshell (Villosa vanuxemensis);

(I)            Notched rainbow (Villosa constricta);

(J)            Rainbow (Villosa iris);

(K)          Roan supercoil (Paravitrea varidens);

(L)           Sculpted supercoil (Paravitrea ternaria);

(M)         Smoky Mountain covert (Inflectarius ferrissi);

(N)          Squawfoot (Strophitus undulatus);

(O)          Tidewater mucket (Leptodea ochracea);

(P)           Triangle floater (Alasmidonta undulata);

(Q)          Waccamaw ambersnail (Catinella waccamawensis);

(R)          Waccamaw fatmucket (Lampsilis fullerkati); and

(S)           Waccamaw spike (Elliptio waccamawensis).

(7)           Reptiles:

(A)          Northern pine snake (Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus); and

(B)          Southern hognose snake (Heterodon simus).

 

History Note:        Authority G.S. 113‑134; 113‑291.2; 113‑292; 113‑333;

Eff. March 17, 1978;

Amended Eff. June 1, 2008; April 1, 2001; November 1, 1991; April 1, 1991; June 1, 1990; September 1, 1989;

Temporary Amendment Eff. February 27, 2015;

Amended Eff. October 1, 2017; July 1, 2016; August 1, 2016.

 

15A NCAC 10I .0105         SPECIAL CONCERN SPECIES LISTED

The following species of resident wildlife shall be designated as state‑listed special concern species:

(1)           Amphibians:

(a)           Crevice salamander (Plethodon longicrus);

(b)           Dwarf salamander (Eurycea quadridigitata);

(c)           Dwarf black-bellied salamander (Desmognathus folkertsi);

(d)           Eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis);

(e)           Four‑toed salamander (Hemidactylium scutatum);

(f)            Gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor);

(g)           Longtail salamander (Eurycea longicauda longicauda);

(h)           Mole salamander (Ambystoma talpoideum);

(i)            Mountain chorus frog (Pseudacris brachyphona);

(j)            Mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus);

(k)           Neuse River waterdog (Necturus lewisi);

(l)            Southern zigzag salamander (Plethodon ventralis); and

(m)          Weller's salamander (Plethodon welleri).

(2)           Birds:

(a)           American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus);

(b)           Bachman's sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis);

(c)           Barn owl (Tyto alba);

(d)           Black‑capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus);

(e)           Black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis);

(f)            Black skimmer (Rynchops niger);

(g)           Brown creeper (Certhia americana nigrescens);

(h)           Cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea);

(i)            Glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus);

(j)            Golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera);

(k)           Least bittern (Ixobrychus exilis);

(l)            Least tern (Sternula antillarum);

(m)          Little blue heron (Egretta caerulea);

(n)           Loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus);

(o)           Painted bunting (Passerina ciris);

(p)           Red crossbill (Loxia curvirostra);

(q)           Snowy egret (Egretta thula);

(r)            Tricolored heron (Egretta tricolor);

(s)            Vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus); and

(t)            Wilson's plover (Charadrius wilsonia).

(3)           Crustacea:

(a)           Broad River spiny crayfish (Cambarus spicatus);

(b)           Carolina skistodiaptomus (Skistodiaptomus carolinensis);

(c)           Carolina well diacyclops (Diacyclops jeannelli putei);

(d)           Chowanoke crayfish (Orconectes virginiensis);

(e)           Graceful clam shrimp (Lynceus gracilicornis);

(f)            Greensboro burrowing crayfish (Cambarus catagius);

(g)           Hiwassee headwaters crayfish (Cambarus parrishi);

(h)           Little Tennessee River crayfish (Cambarus georgiae);

(i)            North Carolina spiny crayfish (Orconectes carolinensis);

(j)            Oconee stream crayfish (Cambarus chaugaensis); and

(k)           Waccamaw crayfish (Procambarus braswelli).

(4)           Fish:

(a)           American brook lamprey (Lethenteron appendix);

(b)           Banded sculpin (Cottus carolinae);

(c)           Blackbanded darter (Percina nigrofasciata);

(d)           Bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei);

(e)           Blue Ridge sculpin (Cottus caeruleomentum);

(f)            Blueside darter (Etheostoma jessiae);

(g)           Broadtail madtom (Noturus sp.)(Lumber River and its tributaries and Cape Fear River and its tributaries);

(h)           Carolina darter (Etheostoma collis);

(i)            Cutlip minnow (Exoglossum maxillingua);

(j)            Freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens)(French Broad River);

(k)           Highfin carpsucker (Carpiodes velifer)(Cape Fear River and its tributaries);

(l)            Kanawha minnow (Phenacobius teretulus);

(m)          Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens);

(n)           Least killifish (Heterandria formosa);

(o)           Longhead darter (Percina macrocephala);

(p)           Mooneye (Hiodon tergisus);

(q)           Mountain madtom (Noturus eleutherus);

(r)            Ohio lamprey (Ichthyomyzon bdellium);

(s)            Olive darter (Percina squamata);

(t)            Pinewoods darter (Etheostoma mariae);

(u)           River carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio);

(v)           Sandhills chub (Semotilus lumbee);

(w)          Smoky dace (Clinostomus sp.)(Little Tennessee River and tributaries);

(x)           Striped shiner (Luxilus chrysocephalus);

(y)           Tennessee snubnose darter (Etheostoma simoterum);

(z)           Thinlip chub (Cyprinella zanema)(Lumber River and its tributaries and Cape Fear River and its tributaries);

(aa)         Waccamaw killifish (Fundulus waccamensis);

(bb)         Wounded darter (Etheostoma vulneratum); and

(cc)         Yellowfin shiner (Notropis lutipinnis)(Savannah River and its tributaries).

(5)           Mammals:

(a)           Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister);

(b)           Buxton Woods white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus buxtoni);

(c)           Coleman's oldfield mouse (Peromyscus polionotus colemani);

(d)           Eastern big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii macrotis);

(e)           Eastern small‑footed bat (Myotis leibii leibii);

(f)            Florida yellow bat (Lasiurus intermedius floridanus);

(g)           Pungo white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus easti);

(h)           Southeastern bat (Myotis austroriparius);

(i)            Southern rock vole (Microtus chrotorrhinus carolinensis); and

(j)            Star‑nosed mole (Condylura cristata parva).

(6)           Mollusks:

(a)           Appalachian gloss (Zonitoides patuloides);

(b)           Bidentate dome (Ventridens coelaxis);

(c)           Black mantleslug (Pallifera hemphilli);

(d)           Blackwater ancylid (Ferrissia hendersoni);

(e)           Blue‑foot lancetooth (Haplotrema kendeighi);

(f)            Cape Fear spike (Elliptio marsupiobesa);

(g)           Clingman covert (Fumonelix wheatleyi clingmanicus);

(h)           Dark glyph (Glyphyalinia junaluskana);

(i)            Dwarf proud globe (Patera clarki clarki);

(j)            Dwarf threetooth (Triodopsis fulciden);

(k)           Fringed coil (Helicodiscus fimbriatus);

(l)            Glossy supercoil (Paravitrea placentula);

(m)          Great Smoky slitmouth (Stenotrema depilatum);

(n)           High mountain supercoil (Paravitrea andrewsae);

(o)           Honey glyph (Glyphyalinia vanattai);

(p)           Lamellate supercoil (Paravitrea lamellidens);

(q)           Mirey Ridge supercoil (Paravitrea clappi);

(r)            Open supercoil (Paravitrea umbilicaris);

(s)            Pink glyph (Glyphyalinia pentadelphia);

(t)            Pod lance (Elliptio folliculata);

(u)           Queen crater (Appalachina chilhoweensis);

(v)           Ramp Cove supercoil (Paravitrea lacteodens);

(w)          Ridged lioplax (Lioplax subcarinata);

(x)           Roanoke slabshell (Elliptio roanokensis);

(y)           Saw‑tooth disc (Discus bryanti);

(z)           Seep mudalia (Leptoxis dilatata);

(aa)         Spike (Elliptio dilatata);

(bb)         Spiral coil (Helicodiscus bonamicus);

(cc)         Velvet covert (Inflectarius subpalliatus);

(dd)         Waccamaw amnicola (Amnicola sp.);

(ee)         Waccamaw siltsnail (Cincinnatia sp.); and

(ff)          Wavy‑rayed lampmussel (Lampsilis fasciola).

(7)           Reptiles:

(a)           Carolina pigmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius miliarius);

(b)           Carolina swamp snake (Seminatrix pygaea paludis);

(c)           Carolina watersnake (Nerodia sipedon williamengelsi);

(d)           Cumberland slider (Trachemys scripta troostii);

(e)           Diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin);

(f)            Eastern chicken turtle (Deirochelys reticularia reticularia);

(g)           Eastern smooth green snake (Opheodrys vernalis vernalis);

(h)           Eastern spiny softshell (Apalone spinifera spinifera);

(i)            Mimic glass lizard (Ophisaurus mimicus);

(j)            Outer Banks kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula sticticeps);

(k)           Stripeneck musk turtle (Sternotherus minor peltifer); and

(l)            Timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus).

 

History Note:        Authority G.S. 113‑134; 113‑291.2; 113‑292; 113‑333;

Eff. September 1, 1989;

Amended Eff. October 1, 2017; August 1, 2016; May 1, 2008; July 18, 2002; April 1, 2001; November 1, 1991; April 1, 1991; June 1, 1990.